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Master data

Master data, transaction data and tables, database tables, scheduling
and work preparation for data

Data and Transaction Data

The classification of data into master data and transaction data in the data processing for several decades.


Master data is data that remain unchanged over a longer period. They contain information that is needed again in the same way. All information of a certain object to become a master record summarized and structured in the database. Through this
Merging them into one database object (strain rate) can be found in SAP R / 3 no redundant data storage of master data. They have information already in the care of the user data met. That case concerned the maintenance of user master data in your
User master record.

A much more complex example of master data is the material master. He contains information on all materials procured, a company manufactures, stores or sold. The material master is used by the components the SAP logistics system (within SAP R / 3 Enterprise and beyond) used. A material master record contains the information of an individual material. Within the scope of logistics material master records are
the R / 3 for example needed for the following functions:

• in purchasing for the processing of orders
• in inventory management for the booking of goods movements
• in the audit for the Book of accounts
• in sales for the execution of contracts
• in production planning and control for planning, scheduling
and work preparation.

The data of a material master record can be divided into two categories:

• Using descriptive character these data have only informational value (eg the name
the material master record or the gross weight of the material).
• Using controlled character for example, the scheduling feature.

Most of the data in a material master record of a user can (with appropriate rights) and edit them. In addition, There is also material master data from SAP R / 3 only
be updated. For example, the administrative data are in editing a material master record updates, the inventory data updated where the goods receipt and goods issue postings.

Master records are centrally created (in the sense of cross-application) and can cross (with respect to the application components SAP R / 3 Enterprise) are used. The individual data of a master record is always assigned to organizational units and using these assignments is stored in different tables. They talk then assume that certain data of a master record on the level of OU will be covered.

For example, the account number and the general data become one vendor (supplier) centralized at the client level, the district-specific accounting data (Reconciliation, payment terms, contact etc.) for each company code (any company) separately (locally) at the level of the company code included. The same applies to the customer data (customers). The material number of a material (one material master record) will also be awarded at the client level. The data at the client level are all the underlying units available. This means for example that a vendor in all company codes the same (unique) account number is.

Transaction data

Transaction data is data that are short-lived. They include transaction-based
Information. All motion data of a particular operation be combined into one data set and in one or more (through so-called "key together," linked) database tables stored. Thus, there is no redundant data in the SAP R / 3 the transaction data.

The collection of transaction data for business transactions carried out by bookings in documents.

For example, in inventory management in the collection of material movements of material and accounting documents as evidence for each movement created.

The material evidence of a material movement describes the movement of goods
from storage point of view and serves as evidence of quantitative change by one or more movements, as well as information for subsequent applications (e.g. reports). All positions in the material document refer to the same period and the same chart of accounts. You can but relate to different company codes.

The accounting document to describe the movement of material goods movement
from accounting point of view. An accounting document refers always on a company code. He describes the updating of general ledger accounts financial and represents the change in value for goods movement.


To map business-relevant information that forms the field, the smallest unit of representation. There are usually several fields with consistent data needed to create a business information complete and consistent display.

Fields (ie, the combination of data element and domain) to form no independent objects. They are always tables depends on and can only be created within a table of the ABAP Dictionary.

Database Tables

A database table is a database object and consists of columns (Quantities of data values of the same type) and rows. The fields within a line form the record.

Tables of the ABAP Dictionary

For each database table of the SAP R / 3, the properties are and defines the order of the fields in the ABAP Dictionary, defined as the object of the ABAP Dictionary also commonly called as a table (table of the ABAP Dictionary). Conversely, however, corresponds not necessarily every table in the ABAP Dictionary, a database table.
Being part of a field to a table of the ABAP Dictionary is now illustrated with an example.

1. Select from the menu bar the path SYSTEM | User Preferences | OWN
The SAP window maintains one's own preferences.
2. Place the cursor in the box 'user' and press the
Function key (F1).
The field assistance of the field "user will see".
3. Click the button TECHNICAL INFORMATION.
The technical details of the field "users appear" in the box labeled "Transparent Tab"
You can find the table name "USR02" of the accompanying table of ABAP Dictionary. The field "Field Name" contains the field names »BNAME" of the field within the table "USR02."
4. Place the cursor in the box "Transparent Tab, and click
on the button Browse.
Table »USR02" appears in the ABAP Dictionary.
You see the box BNAME "and a number of other fields in this table. for each field data from the data element and the domain appears.
Note this example is continued.     


Technical Dictionary
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